Just posting this again, with all the additional Information before shills started to forum slide it.
Alexander Solzhenitsyn, the author of '200 Years Together' (Banned in the US) and noble peace prize winner states:
I avoid exactly that which your question implies: I do not call for any sort of score keeping or comparisons between the moral responsibility of one people or another; moreover, I completely exclude the notion of responsibility of one nation toward another. All I am calling for is self-reflection. You can get the answer to your question from the book itself: Every people must answer morally for all of its past—including that past which is shameful. Answer by what means? By attempting to comprehend: How could such a thing have been allowed? Where in all this is did we go wrong? And could it happen again?
It is in that spirit, specifically, that it would behoove the Jewish people to answer, both for the revolutionary cutthroats and the ranks willing to serve them. Not to answer before other peoples, but to oneself, to one’s conscience, and before God. Just as we Russians must answer—for the pogroms, for those merciless arsonist peasants, for those crazed revolutionary soldiers, for those savage sailors.
When we refer to these Jews; the ideological Bolshevik kind (Bolshevik gentile alike), we should not absorb their thuggish and brutal ideology with the meek and peaceful of Judaism, practicing or non-practicing. Just as we should not generalize the white terror with their pogroms and oppression of the Jews with all of Christianity.
Keep in mind that Jews in Russia were a subset of the population, less than 2%.
However, the attitude of Bolshevik Jews to their religion and ethnicity was, generally skeptical - they stressed their internationalism above all. Hence a reason why organized Jewish parties, including Jewish Zionists, had a mostly conflicted relationship with the Bolsheviks. Jewish Bund, a socialist party that organized Jewish workers, the organization where the majority of Jewish socialists were, opposed the October Revolution and Bolshevik rule. This is why it is to do a disservice to Jews to state that Jews, implying ALL, brought down the Czar and imposed Martial Law.
Even according to Solzhenitsyn, many Jews fled Bolshevik reign:
The first Soviet commissar of Justice, Isaac Steinberg, resigned from the Cheka and emigrated. So to didn't the president of the State Bank A.L. Sheinmann, whose signature was on every Soviet banknote.
Russification was the forced cultural assimilation of non-Russian societies. Russification was conducted well before the 1917 October Revolution in imperial Russia as well as during the reign of Stalin in the Soviet Union after the Bolshevik purges. The Russian language replaced Yiddish and other languages as the main language of many Jewish communities too.
'200 Years Together,' has finally been transcribed into English, which was suppressed by nearly every publishing company in the US. Reading '200 Years Together' the reader will discover that most Bolsheviks were not Zionists per say, many considered themselves atheistic Jews, who didn't adhere to Israel as their nation-state for the Jewish Diaspora. You could consider them Internationalist Jews but not Jews of a collective ideology. And, I want to make that point. That many Jews in the political organizations of Russian during the Bolshevik reign were, indeed executed by their own kind, if it meant not adhering to the principles of the revolution.
Stalin's genealogy and even Hitler's, is interesting because there's a possibility both more Jewish. 1/4 to 1/2 Stalin and Hitler possibly completely Jewish. Miles Mathis has a great research article on it and if anyone is interested he'd send you the information by email concerning these genealogies. I find it interesting in Stalin's writings that he loathed Zionists. Of course he purged many of the Bolsheviks later on, but the majority of Bolsheviks did not adhere to the Zionist ideology. It should be noted that Hitler worked with some of the top Zionist officials at the World Zionist Organization, those Zionists in their writings and speeches, also made it clear that the National Socialist ideology is no different than the Zionist ideology, on the basis that, intermarriage of other races is frowned upon by both the National Socialists as well as the Jewish Zionists and likewise each wants his own ethnostate. Many of those who surrounded Hitler, initially, were also Jewish (again, not generalizing all Jewish ideology as the same as the Jews who surrounded Hitler).
That being said most of the Bolsheviks, especially in the Cheka were ruthless thugs. The Red Terror and the Bolshevik political repression was comparable if not worse than the White Terror by the White Army (Russian and non-Russian groups opposed to Bolshevik rule, many of them being ethnic Russian Christians). The Cheka (the Bolshevik secret police) carried out the repressions of the Red Terror. They would go into middle class neighborhoods killing thousands of people in their homes; Christians, Catholics, and anyone who didn't adhere to their revolution. The total number of victims of repression and pacification campaigns could be 1.3 million, whereas another gives estimates of 28,000 executions per year from December 1917 to February 1922. The most reliable estimations for the total number of killings put the number at over 100,000, whereas others suggest a figure of 200,000 and over.
On January 24th, 1919, the Bolshevik Central Committee decided to "exterminate" as a "class enemy" an entire group of people: The Cossacks of the Don Valley and Kuban area near the Black Sea.
In the now declassified secret resolution we read:
After the experiences in the civil war against the Cossacks one must grant that the merciless fight and massive terror against the rich Cossacks, who are to be exterminated to the last man and be physically destroyed, is the only politically correct [Note use of term.] measure. In fact, as admitted by Rheingold, who was tasked as the Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee with the implementation of the Bolshevik Command in the Cossack region:
We tended toward a policy of wanting to completely exterminate the Cossacks without any differentiation. In the few weeks between mid-February and the end of March 1919, Bolshevik special units executed more than 8,000 Cossacks. In each Cossack area, "Revolutionary Tribunals" operating under Martial Law passed out capital sentences on long lists of suspects after deliberations of a few minutes each -- usually for counterrevolutionary behavior.
In this organization, the Cheka:
They were contaminated by criminality, violence and arbitrariness, where rogues and criminals set the tone, men armed to the teeth execute anyone who does not please them. They invade homes, they plunder, rape, arrest people, pass counterfeit money and demand jugs of wine from terrified householders--and then extort from the people who just gave them wine 10-20 times the value of what they have already stolen to let them alone."
The "NEW MORALITY" was described by the Kiev, Cheka in its newspaper Krasny Mech (Red Sword) of August 18th, 1919:
We reject the old systems of morality and humanity. They were invented by the bourgeoisie to suppress and exploit the lower classes. Our morality is without previous models, and our humanity absolute, because it is based on a new ideal: to destroy any form of oppression and force.... For us everything is permitted, because we are first in the world to raise the sword, not for suppression and enslavement, but to release humans from their chains.... Blood? May it flow in rivers! Because only blood can transform the black banner of the piratical bourgeoisie into a red flag, the flag of Revolution. Because only the final death of the old world can protect us permanently from the return of the jackals.
In 1929 a certain I. Silberman deplored in the weekly newspaper of the Soviet legal system (issue no. 4) that in the People's Courts of the Moscow city government too few trials had occurred over anti-semitism, and in fact only 34 in all of Moscow. (This means that every 10 days a trial tool place somewhere in Moscow because of anti-Semitism.)
The articles in this magazine of the People's Commissariat had the effect of an official order for its readers, [do to martial law], which must be kept in mind.
Even a presumption of anti-semitism sufficed for punishment.
Dzerzhinsky stated in a June 1918 press conference:
We open;y advocate organized terror.... Terror, in times of revolution, is an absolute necessity.... The Cheka is obligated to defend the Revolution and destroy the opponent, even if the sword sometimes touches the heads of the innocent." [Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky was a wayward Polish aristocrat and hardened Marxist revolutionary.]
In the Bulletin Red Terror of November 1st, 1918, and then again in the Christmas day 1918 issue of Pravada, Lenin and Dzerzhinsky published without shame their proletarian principles, which they also implemented everywhere in Russia. Solzhenitsyn paraphrases:
Do not search in your investigations for documents and evidence that the accused in word or deed has acted against Soviet power. The first question ou must pose is: to which class does he belong, what is his origin, what education and training has he enjoyed, and what is his occupation? Those are the questions that must determine the fate of the accused.
Solzhenitsyn later states:
Among the national minorities, it is clear that in an organization containing many Latvians, and a considerable number of Poles, the Jews stand out very distinctly, particularly among the responsible persons and active collaborators in the Cheka, among the commissars and investigators. For example, of the lead investigators in the commissariat for fighting counter-revolution, the most important structure in the whole Cheka, half were Jews.
Why was it that anyone who had the misfortune to fall into the hands of the Cheka could count with high probability on standing before a Jewish investigator or being shot by a Jew.
Now Jews are standing on every corner and on every step in the hierarchy of Power. The Russian see him on top of the czars' city of Moscow (Lev B. Kamenev) and at the top of the metropolis on the Neva [St. Petersburg] (Grigory Yevseyevich Zinoviev) and as head of the Red Army (Leon Trotsky), the perfect mechanisms for our self-destruction. He must watch as the riverbank dedicated to Saint Vladimir now bears the famous name of Nachimson.
Solzhenitsyn supplements this with a quote from a Jewish authoress:
And naturally this history [i.e., of the Jews] was, as with other peoples, not only of the pious, but also of the shameless; not only of the defenseless and those taken away to be murdered, but also of men with arms bringing death to others; not only of the hunted and persecuted but also of the hunters and persecutors. There are pages of this history which one does not open without trembling. And these are the pages that are systematically and purposefully eradicated from the consciousness of the Jews.
The massive penetration of Jews into all areas of Russian life and into the top Soviet leadership during the first 20 years, after the Revolution proved hardly CONSTRUCTIVE FOR JEWRY, and EVEN HARMFUL.
What deeply affected the soul of the Russian people was the assault against the Orthodox Church -- during which, just between 1918 -1924, 8,000 clergymen were executed.
The chairman of the "Federation of Godless Militants" was Trotsky himself. His successor, likewise a Jew, Emelian Yaroslavsky (born Gubelmann), rose from membership in the Central Committee and the Control Commission to become the President of the Supreme Soviet.
And Solzhenitsyn, DEPLORES THE REQUIREMENT for authors to deliberately write biased history -- specifically, as he say, "a gale of curses on the old Russia, to which have been added invented cinematic slanders.
And in an article in The Jewish Tribune:
It is no invention to say that there is anti-Semitism in the USSR; nowadays in Russia one throws Jewry and Bolshevism into the same pot; of that there is no doubt.
A Jewish woman doctor complained: "The Jewish Bolsheviks in the administration have ruined my excellent relationship with the local population."
A teacher complained: "The children yell that I am teaching in a 'Jew school,' because Orthodox [Christian] religious education is no longer permitted and because the priest has been driven out. In the People's Commissariat for Education only Jews are sitting there.
I will continue to add more quotes by Solzhenitsyn and Revolutionaries soon....
The Bolsheviks were funded and supported by wealthy Jews out of London and New York. One of them being Jacob Schiff. He expressed regrets, that he could not attend and then described the successful Russian revolution as
"...what we had hoped and striven for these long years". (Mayor Calls Pacifists Traitors, The New York Times, March 24, 1917, p. 2)
President Woodrow Wilson was the fairy godmother, who provided Leon Trotsky with a passport to return to Russia to "carry forward" the revolution... (Antony C. Sutton, Ph. D.: Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution, published by Arlington House in New Rochelle, NY, 1974, p. 25)
They played a highly disproportionate and probably decisive role in the infant Bolshevik regime, effectively dominating the Soviet government during its early years. Soviet historians, along with most of their colleagues in the West, for decades preferred to ignore this subject. The facts, though, cannot be denied.
With the notable exception of Lenin (1/2 - 1/4 Jewish) (Vladimir Ulyanov), most of the leading Communists who took control of Russia in 1917-20 were Jews. Leon Trotsky (Lev Bronstein) headed the Red Army and, for a time, was chief of Soviet foreign affairs. Yakov Sverdlov (Solomon) was both the Bolshevik party's executive secretary and -- as chairman of the Central Executive Committee -- head of the Soviet government. Grigori Zinoviev (Radomyslsky) headed the Communist International (Comintern), the central agency for spreading revolution in foreign countries. Other prominent Jews included press commissar Karl Radek (Sobelsohn), foreign affairs commissar Maxim Litvinov (Wallach), Lev Kamenev (Rosenfeld) and Moisei Uritsky. Lenin himself was of mostly Russian and Kalmuck ancestry, but he was also one-quarter Jewish. His maternal grandfather, Israel (Alexander) Blank, was a Ukrainian Jew who was later baptized into the Russian Orthodox Church. A thorough-going internationalist, Lenin viewed ethnic or cultural loyalties with contempt. He had little regard for his own countrymen.
"An intelligent Russian," he once remarked.
"is almost always a Jew or someone with Jewish blood in his veins."
During Bolshevik Russia;s reign there were many massacres. However, when individuals state that a large majority of the Bolsheviks were not Jews, which the majority of them were, at least in the initial stages of the Bolshevik government before the Stalin purges, I show them this from the noble peace prize winners book, '200 Years Together.'
The Soviet Press provided a list of 556 important functionaries of the Soviet State (1918 - 1919)
...Which included 17 Russians, 2 Ukrainians, 11 Armenians, 35 Letts, 15 Germans, 1 Hungarian, 10 Georgians, 3 Poles, 3 Finns, 1 Czech, 1 Karaim (Jewish sect) -- and 457 Jews.
(81.3% of the Bolshevik Government was Jewish according to the list of 556 Functionaries of the Societ State between 1918-1919.)
THE GOVERNMENTS OF BOLSHEVIK RUSSIA
62 Members (42 Jews and 20 Gentiles) - 68%
EXTRAORDINARY COMMISSION OF MOSCOW
36 Members (23 Jews and 13 Gentiles) - 64% most likely much higher.
THE COUNCIL OF THE PEOPLES COMMISSARS
22 Members (17 Jews and 5 Gentiles) - 77%
CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE BOLSHEVIK PARTY
Bronstein [Trotsky], Apfelbaum [Zinovieff], Lourie (Larine), Ouritski, Volodarski, Rosenfeldt ]Kamenef], Smidovitch, Sverdov [Yankel], Nakhamkes [Steklov], Lenin [Ulyanov]*
(The names in brackets are their real names).
Jews 10, Gentiles 2 (Krylenko, Lounatcharski). - 83%
There is some dispute as to Lenin's racial origins. It is known that he was married to a Jewess; spoke Yiddish as did his children.
"Lenin had taken part in Jewish student meetings in Switzerland thirty-five years before. He is generally regarded as a Russian but there is doubt." -- (Jewish Chronicle, December, 16th, 1932).
"Although Lenin was a political monster, he was no enemy of the Jews. He was aware of his partly Jewish origin, many of his close associates were Jews, he often spoke of Jews in favourable terms and he opposed anti-Jewish attitudes." (The London Times, Dec. 8, 1996, Section 7, page 2)
MENSHEVIKS: 11 Members, all Jews - 100%
COMMUNISTS OF THE PEOPLE: 6 Members, 5 Jews - 83%
S.R (RIGHT WING): 15 Members, 13 Jews - 87%
S.R (LEFT WING): 12 Members, 10 Jews - 83%
COMMITTEE OF THE ANARCHISTS: 5 Members, 4 Jews - 80%
POLISH COMMUNIST PARTY: 12 Members, all Jews - 100%
THE OTHER RUSSIAN SOCIALIST PARTIES ARE SIMILAR IN COMPOSITION
MINISTRY OF THE COMMISSARIAT 22 Members: 17 Jews, 5 Gentiles - 77%
CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 61 Members: 41 Jews, 20 Gentiles - 67%
Stalin might be a Jew based on genealogies, but he's not a Russian but a Caucasian. His Deputy however, is his father-in-law who is Jewish, Lazarus Mosessohn Kaganowitsch, who by Government decree enjoys full rights and privileges and is to all intents and purposes the Supreme Ruler. Kaganowitsch ensured that criteria for key positions in the Police Force, the Red Army, the Department of the Interior, the Ministry of Foreign Trade and in the Foreign Office, is to be of Jewish race.