Posting this again with all the additional Information before shills started to forum slide it. It includes, also, the Jews who fell under the Bolshevik steamroller and their emigration between the wars.
Alexander Solzhenitsyn, the author of '200 Years Together' (Banned in the US) and noble peace prize winner states:
I avoid exactly that which your question implies: I do not call for any sort of score keeping or comparisons between the moral responsibility of one people or another; moreover, I completely exclude the notion of responsibility of one nation toward another. All I am calling for is self-reflection. You can get the answer to your question from the book itself: Every people must answer morally for all of its past—including that past which is shameful. Answer by what means? By attempting to comprehend: How could such a thing have been allowed? Where in all this is did we go wrong? And could it happen again?
It is in that spirit, specifically, that it would behoove the Jewish people to answer, both for the revolutionary cutthroats and the ranks willing to serve them. Not to answer before other peoples, but to oneself, to one’s conscience, and before God. Just as we Russians must answer—for the pogroms, for those merciless arsonist peasants, for those crazed revolutionary soldiers, for those savage sailors.
Solzhenitsyn begins rightly with the obligations and religious roots of Jewry as scattered across the world in the Diaspora. From these derive obligations for a border-superseding cooperation that is not only Zionist (benefiting the concept of a Jewish "State of Israel") but much more. This worldwide, religiously and racially motivated requirement of loyalty, which crystallized during World War I on the East Coast of the U.S. among high-level personages of international Jewry, also exerted itself upon all Jews living around the world. Solzhenitsyn makes two things clear:
1) There is a factual basis for asserting that there exists
a globe-encompassing, comprehensive code that not only
defines "good" and "evil" in terms of religion and race,
but also derives from it vast consequences in imperial
2) There is an absolutely unilateral Jewish evaluation
and appreciation of any human action depending on the
religion, people and race to which the person in question
Solzhenitsyn says: "It is said of David Ben Gurion, that he once told the world:
'What is important is what the Jews do, and not what the goyim have to say about it.’
Jews In Russia: Introduction
Jews in Russia were a subset of the population, less than 2%. To refer to these Jews; the ideological Bolshevik type and consider too the thousands of Bolshevik gentiles alike, we should not conflate their thuggish and brutal ideology with the meek and peaceful of Judaism, practicing or non-practicing. Just as we should not blame all Christians for the White Terror with their pogroms and oppression.
Many Jews were prominent in Russian revolutionary parties. The idea of overthrowing the Czar was attractive to many members of the Jewish intelligentsia because of the oppression of non-Russian nations and non-Orthodox Christians within the Russian Empire, especially Jews. For much the same reason, many non-Russians, notably Latvians or Poles, were disproportionately represented in the party leaderships.
In 1897 General Jewish Labour Bund (The Bund), was formed. Many Jews joined the ranks of two principal revolutionary parties: Socialist-Revolutionary Party and Russian Social Democratic Labour Party—both Bolshevik and Menshevik factions.
A notable number of Bolshevik party members were ethnically Jewish, especially in the leadership of the party, and the percentage of Jewish party members among the rival Mensheviks was even higher. Both the founders and leaders of Menshevik faction, Julius Martov and Pavel Axelrod, were Jewish.
Because many of the leading Bolsheviks were Jewish and Bolshevism supports a policy of promoting international proletarian revolution—most notably in the case of Leon Trotsky—many enemies of Bolshevism, as well as contemporary antisemitism, draw a picture of Communism as a political slur at the entirety of the Jewish diaspora and accuse all Jews of pursuing Bolshevism to benefit a so called collective Jewish interest, reflected in the terms Jewish Bolshevism or Judeo-Bolshevism. The original atheistic and internationalistic ideology of the Bolsheviks (See proletarian internationalism, bourgeois nationalism) was incompatible with Jewish traditionalism. Bolsheviks such as Trotsky echoed sentiments dismissing Jewish heritage in place of "internationalism or Globalism in the ideologues of the Comintern”.
Soon after seizing power in 1917, the Bolsheviks established the Yevsektsiya, the Jewish section of the Communist party in order to destroy the rival Bund and Zionist parties, suppress Judaism and replace traditional Jewish culture with "proletarian culture". (Gitelman, Zvi "Jewish Nationality and Soviet Politics: The Jewish Sections of the CPSU", Princeton, 1972.)
The attitude of Bolshevik Jews to their religion and ethnicity was, generally skeptical - they stressed their internationalism above all. This is a reason why organized Jewish parties, including Jewish Zionists, had a mostly conflicted relationship with the Bolsheviks. Jewish Bund, a socialist party that organized Jewish workers, the organization where the majority of Jewish socialists were, opposed the October Revolution and Bolshevik rule. This is why it is to do a disservice to Jews to state that Jews, implying ALL, brought down the Czar and imposed Martial Law. So, when we refer to Jews herein, know that these Jews are the Bolshevik type. The Jews that knowingly promoted this ideology; the Jews and gentiles alike who advocated for class extermination.
Lenin was distrustful of any specific Jewish national claims. When the Communist movement began and Lenin's Bolsheviks had to compete with the Bund, he repeatedly denounced the Bund's support for Jewish cultural autonomy:
"Only a Jewish reactionary middle class, strongly interested in turning back the wheel of history can rail against 'assimilation activities.'" (cited in Gennadii Kostyrchenko, Out of the Red Shadows: Antisemitism in Stalin's Russia, Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1995, p.14). In Lenin's view, once the Jews were freed of discrimination and racist violence, they would abandon their religious traditions and the use of Yiddish and then conveniently disappear. (Stalin and the Jews: The Red Book: The Tragedy of the Soviet Jews and the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (review) Joshua Rubenstein.)
Even according to Solzhenitsyn, many Jews fled Bolshevik reign:
The first Soviet commissar of Justice, Isaac Steinberg, resigned from the Cheka and emigrated. So to didn't the president of the State Bank A.L. Sheinmann, whose signature was on every Soviet banknote.
Russification was the forced cultural assimilation of non-Russian societies. Russification was conducted well before the 1917 October Revolution in imperial Russia as well as during the reign of Stalin in the Soviet Union after the Bolshevik purges. The Russian language replaced Yiddish and other languages as the main language of many Jewish communities too.
'200 Years Together,' has finally been transcribed into English, which was suppressed by nearly every publishing company in the US. Reading '200 Years Together' the reader will discover that most Bolsheviks were not Zionists, instead, many considered themselves atheistic Jews, who didn't adhere to Israel as their nation-state for the Jewish Diaspora. You could consider them Internationalist Jews but not Jews of a collective ideology. And, I want to make that point. That many Jews in the political organizations of Russian during the Bolshevik reign were, indeed executed by their own kind, if it meant not adhering to the principles of the revolution.
Stalin's genealogy and even Hitler's, is interesting because there's a possibility both more Jewish. 1/4 to 1/2 Stalin and Hitler possibly completely Jewish. Miles Mathis has a great research article on it and if anyone is interested he'd send you the information by email concerning these genealogies. I find it interesting in Stalin's writings that he loathed Zionists. Of course he purged many of the Bolsheviks later on, but the majority of Bolsheviks did not adhere to the Zionist ideology. It should be noted that Hitler worked with some of the top Zionist officials at the World Zionist Organization, those Zionists in their writings and speeches, also made it clear that the National Socialist ideology is no different than the Zionist ideology, on the basis that, intermarriage of other races is frowned upon by both the National Socialists as well as the Jewish Zionists and likewise each wants his own ethnostate. Many of those who surrounded Hitler, initially, were also Jewish (again, not generalizing all Jewish ideology as the same as the Jews who surrounded Hitler).
That being said most of the Bolsheviks, especially in the Cheka were ruthless thugs. The Red Terror and the Bolshevik political repression was comparable if not worse than the White Terror by the White Army (Russian and non-Russian groups opposed to Bolshevik rule, many of them being ethnic Russian Christians). The Cheka (the Bolshevik secret police) carried out the repressions of the Red Terror. They would go into middle class neighborhoods killing thousands of people in their homes; Christians, Catholics, and anyone who didn't adhere to their revolution. The total number of victims of repression and pacification campaigns could be 1.3 million, whereas another gives estimates of 28,000 executions per year from December 1917 to February 1922. The most reliable estimations for the total number of killings put the number at over 100,000, whereas others suggest a figure of 200,000 and over.
On January 24th, 1919, the Bolshevik Central Committee decided to "exterminate" as a "class enemy" an entire group of people: The Cossacks of the Don Valley and Kuban area near the Black Sea.
In the now declassified secret resolution we read:
After the experiences in the civil war against the Cossacks one must grant that the merciless fight and massive terror against the rich Cossacks, who are to be exterminated to the last man and be physically destroyed, is the only politically correct [Note use of term.] measure. In fact, as admitted by Rheingold, who was tasked as the Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee with the implementation of the Bolshevik Command in the Cossack region:
We tended toward a policy of wanting to completely exterminate the Cossacks without any differentiation. In the few weeks between mid-February and the end of March 1919, Bolshevik special units executed more than 8,000 Cossacks. In each Cossack area, "Revolutionary Tribunals" operating under Martial Law passed out capital sentences on long lists of suspects after deliberations of a few minutes each -- usually for counterrevolutionary behavior.
In this organization, the Cheka:
They were contaminated by criminality, violence and arbitrariness, where rogues and criminals set the tone, men armed to the teeth execute anyone who does not please them. They invade homes, they plunder, rape, arrest people, pass counterfeit money and demand jugs of wine from terrified householders--and then extort from the people who just gave them wine 10-20 times the value of what they have already stolen to let them alone."
The "NEW MORALITY" was described by the Kiev, Cheka in its newspaper Krasny Mech (Red Sword) of August 18th, 1919:
We reject the old systems of morality and humanity. They were invented by the bourgeoisie to suppress and exploit the lower classes. Our morality is without previous models, and our humanity absolute, because it is based on a new ideal: to destroy any form of oppression and force.... For us everything is permitted, because we are first in the world to raise the sword, not for suppression and enslavement, but to release humans from their chains.... Blood? May it flow in rivers! Because only blood can transform the black banner of the piratical bourgeoisie into a red flag, the flag of Revolution. Because only the final death of the old world can protect us permanently from the return of the jackals.
In 1929 a certain I. Silberman deplored in the weekly newspaper of the Soviet legal system (issue no. 4) that in the People's Courts of the Moscow city government too few trials had occurred over anti-semitism, and in fact only 34 in all of Moscow. (This means that every 10 days a trial tool place somewhere in Moscow because of antisemitism.)
The articles in this magazine of the People's Commissariat had the effect of an official order for its readers, [do to martial law], which must be kept in mind.
Even a presumption of antisemitism sufficed for punishment. Many were executed for just using antisemitic language under your tongue.
Dzerzhinsky stated in a June 1918 press conference:
We open;y advocate organized terror.... Terror, in times of revolution, is an absolute necessity.... The Cheka is obligated to defend the Revolution and destroy the opponent, even if the sword sometimes touches the heads of the innocent." [Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky was a wayward Polish aristocrat and hardened Marxist revolutionary.]
In the Bulletin Red Terror of November 1st, 1918, and then again in the Christmas day 1918 issue of Pravada, Lenin and Dzerzhinsky published without shame their proletarian principles, which they also implemented everywhere in Russia. Solzhenitsyn paraphrases:
Do not search in your investigations for documents and evidence that the accused in word or deed has acted against Soviet power. The first question ou must pose is: to which class does he belong, what is his origin, what education and training has he enjoyed, and what is his occupation? Those are the questions that must determine the fate of the accused.
Solzhenitsyn later states:
Among the national minorities, it is clear that in an organization containing many Latvians, and a considerable number of Poles, the Jews stand out very distinctly, particularly among the responsible persons and active collaborators in the Cheka, among the commissars and investigators. For example, of the lead investigators in the commissariat for fighting counter-revolution, the most important structure in the whole Cheka, half were Jews.
Why was it that anyone who had the misfortune to fall into the hands of the Cheka could count with high probability on standing before a Jewish investigator or being shot by a Jew.
Now Jews are standing on every corner and on every step in the hierarchy of Power. The Russian see him on top of the czars' city of Moscow (Lev B. Kamenev) and at the top of the metropolis on the Neva [St. Petersburg] (Grigory Yevseyevich Zinoviev) and as head of the Red Army (Leon Trotsky), the perfect mechanisms for our self-destruction. He must watch as the riverbank dedicated to Saint Vladimir now bears the famous name of Nachimson.
Solzhenitsyn supplements this with a quote from a Jewish authoress:
And naturally this history [i.e., of the Jews] was, as with other peoples, not only of the pious, but also of the shameless; not only of the defenseless and those taken away to be murdered, but also of men with arms bringing death to others; not only of the hunted and persecuted but also of the hunters and persecutors. There are pages of this history which one does not open without trembling. And these are the pages that are systematically and purposefully eradicated from the consciousness of the Jews.
The massive penetration of Jews into all areas of Russian life and into the top Soviet leadership during the first 20 years, after the Revolution proved hardly CONSTRUCTIVE FOR JEWRY, and EVEN HARMFUL.
What deeply affected the soul of the Russian people was the assault against the Orthodox Church
-- during which, just between 1918 -1924, 8,000 clergymen were executed.
The chairman of the "Federation of Godless Militants" was Trotsky himself. His successor, likewise a Jew, Emelian Yaroslavsky (born Gubelmann), rose from membership in the Central Committee and the Control Commission to become the President of the Supreme Soviet.
And Solzhenitsyn, DEPLORES THE REQUIREMENT for authors to deliberately write biased history -- specifically, as he say, "a gale of curses on the old Russia, to which have been added invented cinematic slanders.
And in an article in The Jewish Tribune:
It is no invention to say that there is antisemitism in the USSR; nowadays in Russia one throws Jewry and Bolshevism into the same pot; of that there is no doubt.
A Jewish woman doctor complained: "The Jewish Bolsheviks in the administration have ruined my excellent relationship with the local population."
A teacher complained: "The children yell that I am teaching in a 'Jew school,' because Orthodox [Christian] religious education is no longer permitted and because the priest has been driven out. In the People's Commissariat for Education only Jews are sitting there.
The First International Jewish Congress took place in Vienna in August 1936. M. Vishnyak
disapprovingly suggested that the collective attitude toward the Bolshevik regime was
perfectly exemplified by the opinion of N. Goldman: if all sorts of freedom-loving
governments and organizations “flatter and even fawn before the Bolsheviks ... why
shouldn’t supporters of Jewish ethnic and cultural independence follow the same path? ...
Only Moscow’s open support for anti-Jewish violence in Palestine slightly cooled the
Congress leaders’ disposition toward the Soviet state. Even then ... they only protested the
banning of Hebrew ... and the banning of emigration from the USSR to Palestine, and, finally,
they objected to the continuing suffering of Zionists in political prisons and concentration camps.
What of Jewish Bolsheviks? I. Bikerman:
“Prowess doesn’t taint – that is our attitude to Bolsheviks who were raised among us and to their satanic evil. Or the modern version: Jews have the right to have their own Bolsheviks”; “I have heard this declaration a thousand times”; at a meeting of Jewish emigrants in Berlin “one after the other, a respected Kadet, a Democrat, a Zionist ascended the podium” and each “proclaimed this right of Jews to have their own Bolsheviks ... their right to monstrosity.”
“Here are the consequences of these words: Jewish opinion across the world turned away
from Russia and accepted the Bolsheviks”; “when a famous, old, and well respected Jewish
public figure – a white crow – suggested to a high Jewish dignitary in one of the European
capitals organizing a protest against the executions of Orthodox priests in Russia [i.e. in the
USSR], the latter, after reflecting on the idea, said that it would mean struggling against
Bolshevism, which he considers an impossible thing to do because the collapse of Bolshevik
regime would lead to anti-Jewish pogroms.”
But if they can live with Bolsheviks, what do they think of the White movement?
When Josef Bikerman spoke in Berlin in November 1922 at the fifth anniversary of the founding of the White Army,:
Bolshevism and Judaism, where he passionately argued against the commonplace explanation that Bolshevism originated from the Jewish religion. “The identification of Judaism with Bolshevism is a grave global danger.”
In 1923, together with I. M. Bikerman, G. A. Landau, I. O. Levin, D. O. Linsky (also an ex-member of the White Army) and V. C. Mandel, Pasmanik founded the National
Union of Russian Jews Abroad. This group published an appeal To the Jews of the World! in
the same year, and soon after published a collection Russia and the Jews in Berlin.
“In all its varieties and forms, Bolshevik communism ... is an evil and true foe of Jewry, as it is first of all the enemy of personal identity in general and of cultural identity in particular.”’
Their 1923 Proclamation stated:
“The National Union of Russian Jews Abroad firmly believes that the Bolsheviks epitomize the greatest evil for the Jews as well as for all other peoples of Russia.... It is time for the Jew to stop tremble at the thought of going against the revolution.... Rather, the Jew should fear going against his motherland Russia and his people Jewish.”
However, the authors of Russia and the Jews saw the Jewish national consciousness of the
early 1920s as something very different from what they’ve thought it should have been.
“Almost all circles and classes of Russian society are now engaged in grievous self -reflections,
trying to comprehend what has happened....Whether these self-accusations and admissions of guilt are fair or not, they at least reveal the work of thought, conscience, and aching hearts.... But it would be no exaggeration to claim that such spiritual work is the least noticeable among the Jewish intelligentsia, which is no doubt a symptom of certain morbidity.... For an outsider it appears that a typical Jewish intellectual has no concerns.
For this intellectual “everyone else is to blame – the government, the generals, the peasants, etc. He has nothing to do with all this.... In no way did he forge his own destiny and the destinies of those around him; he is just a passersby, hit on the head by a falling brick”; “so they were complicit in destroying the world around them+, but after it was finished they became unaware of their role in it.”
Jewish Bolsheviks was a particular pain for the authors.
“A sin that carries the seed of its own nemesis, ... what greater affliction is there for a people than to see its sons debauched?”
“It is not just that the Russian upheaval needed people of a certain sort for its perpetuation, or that the Jewish society provided this sort of people; what is most important is that they were not rebuffed, did not meet enough opposition from within their own society.”
“It is our duty to shoulder the struggle specifically against the Jewish Bolsheviks, against all kinds
of YevSeks tthe ‘Jewish Section,’ the name given to officials appointed by the Soviets to deal
with Jewish affairs], and against Jewish commissars in general.”
It should be noted that these authors were not alone in arguing that Russian (and now emigrant) Jews should fight against the Bolsheviks. From the pages of the Jewish Tribune:
“If Bolshevism was swept from power in Russia by a wave of popular wrath, Jewry might be
held, in the eyes of the masses, responsible for prolonging Bolshevism’s lifespan.... Only
active participation in the struggle to liquidate Bolshevism can secure Jews a safe position in
the common cause of saving Russia.”
Bikerman warned: if we support the Bolsheviks “on the principle that your own shirt is closer
to the body” then “we should not forget that we thus allow the Russian to take care of his
own shirt that is closer to his body; that it justifies the call, ‘Slaughter Yids, Sa ve Russia.’”
What of the Jewish attitudes toward the White Army? “This unworthy attitude that Jews
have towards people who have taken upon their shoulders the endlessly difficult task of
fighting for Russia, for the millions of the sheepish and weak-willed, points out to the
complete moral disintegration, to a sort of perversion of mind....” While “all of us, Jews and
non-Jews alike, placed ourselves obediently under the communist yoke and our backs under
the whip, there were some Russians, courageous and proud, who overcame all obstacles,
gathered from what remained of the breached and ripped apart fronts [of World War I],
consolidated and raised the banner of resistance.... Just that they were willing to fight under
these circumstances alone immortalizes them for the history. And these people became an
object for abuse” on the side of so many Jews, “libeled by every loquacious tongue”; so
“instead of appreciation the tragedy, we see epidemic mindlessness, endless laxity of speech,
and triumphant superficiality.” And yet “the Russia for which the Whites fought is not alien
to us; it is ‘our shirt’ too.”“Jewry should have fought for the White cause as for the
cause of Jewish salvation, for ... only in the restoration and swift rescue of Russian statehood
can Jews find salvation from that death that has never been as close as in these days.”
(Death was indeed approaching, although from another direction).
Who would deny these conclusions today, after decades of Soviet regime? But at that time,
only few authors, Jewish or Russian, could see so far ahead. The Jewish emigrant community
as a whole rejected these thoughts. And thus they had failed the test of history. It might be
objected that it did not cause Jewry a noticeable, significant harm, and certainly it was not
the Holocaust brought by Hitlerism. Yes, it did not bring commensurable physical harm, but,
historically, its spiritual harm was noticeable; take, for instance, the success of Bolshevism in
the expulsion of the Jewish religion from the country where it had once deeply spread its sacred roots. And there was more – the Jews, by “betting on Bolshevism” influenced the
overall course of events in Europe.
The authors of the Russia and the Jews appealed in vain:
“In the many centuries of Jewish dispersion ... there has not been a political catastrophe as deeply threatening to our national existence as the breaking of the Russian Power, for never have the vital forces of the Jewish people been as united as in the bygone, living Russia. Even the breakup of the Caliphate can scarcely compare with the current disaster.” “For the united Russian Jewry the breakup of Russia into separate sovereign states is a national calamity.”*80+ “If there is no place for the Jews in the great spaces of the Russian land, in the boundlessness of the Russian soul,
then there is no space *for Jews+ anywhere in the world.... Woe to us, if we do not wise up.”
Of course, by the very end of the 20th century we can easily reject these grim prophecies, if
only as a matter of fact – just as enough space has been found on earth for formerly Russian
Jews, so a Jewish state has been founded and secured itself, while Russia still lies in ruin, so
powerless and humiliated. The warnings of the authors on how Russia should be treated
already appear a great exaggeration, a failed prophecy. And now we can reflect on these
words only in regard of the spiritual chord that so unexpectedly bound the two our peoples
together in History.
“If Russia is not our motherland, then we are foreigners and have no right to interfere in her
national life.”*82+ “Russia will survive; her renaissance must become our national concern,
the concern of the entire ... Russian Jewry.”
And in conclusion: “The fate of Russian Jewry is inextricably linked to the fate of Russia; we must save Russia, if we want to save Jewry .... The Jews must fight the molesters of the great country shoulder to shoulder with all other anti-Bolshevik forces; a consolidated struggle against the common enemy will heal the rifts and substantially reduce the current dramatic and ubiquitous growth of anti-Semitism; only by saving Russia, can we prevent a Jewish catastrophe.”
The Bolsheviks were funded and supported by wealthy Jews out of London and New York. One of them being Jacob Schiff. He expressed regrets, that he could not attend and then described the successful Russian revolution as
"...what we had hoped and striven for these long years". (Mayor Calls Pacifists Traitors, The New York Times, March 24, 1917, p. 2)
President Woodrow Wilson was the fairy godmother, who provided Leon Trotsky with a passport to return to Russia to "carry forward" the revolution... (Antony C. Sutton, Ph. D.: Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution, published by Arlington House in New Rochelle, NY, 1974, p. 25)
They played a highly disproportionate and probably decisive role in the infant Bolshevik regime, effectively dominating the Soviet government during its early years. Soviet historians, along with most of their colleagues in the West, for decades preferred to ignore this subject. The facts, though, cannot be denied.
With the notable exception of Lenin (1/2 - 1/4 Jewish) (Vladimir Ulyanov), most of the leading Communists who took control of Russia in 1917-20 were Jews. Leon Trotsky (Lev Bronstein) headed the Red Army and, for a time, was chief of Soviet foreign affairs. Yakov Sverdlov (Solomon) was both the Bolshevik party's executive secretary and -- as chairman of the Central Executive Committee -- head of the Soviet government. Grigori Zinoviev (Radomyslsky) headed the Communist International (Comintern), the central agency for spreading revolution in foreign countries. Other prominent Jews included press commissar Karl Radek (Sobelsohn), foreign affairs commissar Maxim Litvinov (Wallach), Lev Kamenev (Rosenfeld) and Moisei Uritsky. Lenin himself was of mostly Russian and Kalmuck ancestry, but he was also one-quarter Jewish. His maternal grandfather, Israel (Alexander) Blank, was a Ukrainian Jew who was later baptized into the Russian Orthodox Church. A thorough-going internationalist, Lenin viewed ethnic or cultural loyalties with contempt. He had little regard for his own countrymen.
"An intelligent Russian," he once remarked.
"is almost always a Jew or someone with Jewish blood in his veins."
During Bolshevik Russia's reign there were many massacres. However, when individuals state that a large majority of the Bolsheviks were not Jews, which the majority of them were, at least in the initial stages of the Bolshevik government before the Stalin purges, I show them this from the noble peace prize winners book, '200 Years Together.'